Thursday, January 29, 2009

Causes of Rural to Urban Migration

Q. What are the causes of rural to urban migration?

Migrations are response of individual decision-makers. Some causes of migration are constant, and some are not. In general we can divide factors causing migrations into two groups of factors: Push and pull factors. In general:

        • Push Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based.

        • Pull Factors are economic, political, cultural, and environmentally based.

        • Some certain factors are both push and pull like education, industry etc.

On the macro level, the causes of migration can be distilled into two main categories: security dimension of migration (natural disasters, conflicts, threats to individual safety, poor political prospects) and economic dimension of migration (poor economic situation, poor situation of national market). Push and pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. A push factor is forceful, and a factor which relates to the country from which a person migrates. It is generally some problem which results in people wanting to migrate. Different types of push factors can be seen further below. A pull factor is something concerning the country to which a person migrates. It is generally a benefit that attracts people to a certain place. Push and pull factors are usually considered as north and south poles on a magnet.

Push Factors


  • Not enough jobs

  • Few opportunities

  • "Primitive" conditions

  • Political fear

  • Poor medical care

  • Not being able to practice religion

  • Loss of wealth

  • Natural Disasters

  • Death threats

  • Slavery

  • Poor housing

  • Landlords

  • Bullying

  • Poor chances of finding courtship

It is the negative factors for migration and the main factors are:

      • High unemployment and little opportunity.

      • Great poverty.

      • High crime.

      • Repression or a recent disaster (e.g., drought or earthquake).

Pull Factors

  • Job opportunities

  • Better living conditions

  • Political and/or religious freedom

  • Enjoyment

  • Education

  • Better medical care

  • Security

  • Family links

  • Better chances of finding courtship

These are the positive factors of migration and the gross reasons are:

      • High job availability and higher wages.

      • More exciting lifestyle.

      • Political freedom, greater safety and security, etc.

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